Estrogen receptor alpha, a NR3 Steroid Receptor, activates transcription of a wide variety of genes in response to estrogen, particularly in reproductive tissues. Recent studies have shown that ER alpha also can function in a ligand-independent and DNA binding- independent manner, as well as through cell-surface signaling. ER alpha functions have also been demonstrated via the selective ER modulator (SERM) ligands and their various ER signaling pathways. ER alpha-knockout mice (alphaERKO) experience incomplete infertility and exhibit estrogen insensitivity in the reproductive tract, hypergonadotropic-hypogonadism, lack of pubertal mammary gland development, excess adipose tissue, testicular degeneration, and epididymal dysfunction. In the adult, estrogen is important in maintaining the constancy of bone mass through its effects on remodeling and bone turnover; inactivation of ER alpha is associated with low bone-mineral density and potentially could lead to osteoporosis. ER alpha exhibits complex patterns of alternative splicing and promoter usage, and at least 20 mRNA splice variants have been documented in normal and neoplastic tissues and cell lines. However, only two ER alpha protein isoforms have been documented: a common 66- kDa form and a truncated 46- kDa form that lacks the first 173 amino acids at the N terminus.
ESR1 antibody can be used in ELISA starting at 1:15000 - 1:60000, Western Blot starting at 1:500 - 1:3000, and immunohistochemistry starting at 2.5 μg/mL.
Protein G Column
PBS, 0.1% sodium azide.
Aliquot and store at -20°C or below. Avoid multiple freeze-thaw cycles.